Here are some random notes and links on chloroquine and Vitamin C:e


Here are some random notes and links on chloroquine and Vitamin C:e


Three publications from Chinese teams working on the Coronavirus 2019-nCoV are currently available in the literature.
The first, in Cell research, reports the activity of Remdesivir and Chloroquine against the Chinese Coronavirus. It shows that both are very effective in vitro. The authors conclude their article by recommending trying these drugs clinically (1).

A second advanced publication work, published in BioScience Trends, reports that the first evaluation in clinical trials of Chloroquine, which includes the analysis of the results of more than 100 patients, shows that Chloroquine is superior to control therapy. It prevents the worsening of pneumonia, improves the results of radiological examinations, it leads to elimination of the virus and it shortens the duration of the disease.

No side effects are observed. Given the in vitro efficacy, the authors sought to obtain a concentration of 1.1 mmol / ml, or 0.3 mg / l. A dosage of three tablets of Plaquenil (OH Chloroquine) 600 mg / day, which we use daily, allows us to obtain a concentration of 1 mg / l, or 3 times the dose necessary to have this concentration.

After analyzing these results, a Chinese committee including government experts, regulatory authorities and the main investigators of the clinical trials, concluded that Chloroquine had clinical activity against the virus. The drug will be part of the next version of the guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia caused by this virus which is published by the Public Health Commission of the Republic of China (2).

Dr. Zhong Nanshan (3), president of the Chinese Medical Association (2005-2009), editor of the Journal of thoracic disease, director of the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, said in a press conference on February 27 2020 that Chloroquine has a positive effect and that patients were no longer carriers of the virus after 4 days (4).

References :

1: “Remdesivir and Chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently appeared novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) in vitro”, January 25 20020, Cell Research, Nature.
2: “Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies”, Jianjun Gao and at, February 19 2020, Advanced Publication, BioScience Trends.

Chloroquine for the 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2

Author links open overlay panelPhilippeColsonabJean-MarcRolainabDidierRaoultab rights and content

A movement to reposition drugs has been initiated in recent years [1]. In this strategy, it is important to use drugs that have been proven to be harmless and whose pharmacokinetics and optimal dosage are well known. In the current episode of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergence [2], we find a spectacular example of possible repositioning of drugs, particularly chloroquine. We had 20 years ago proposed to systematically test chloroquine in viral infections because it had been shown to be effective in vitro against a broad range of viruses [3,4]. This drug has multiple activities, one of which is to alkalise the phagolysosome, which hampers the low-pH-dependent steps of viral replication, including fusion and uncoating [4]. Other mechanisms of antiviral activity are poorly explained [5].

At the time of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus epidemic [6] in 2003, several molecules were tested to assess their effectiveness against this virus. Among these, teicoplanin[7], an antistaphylococcal agent, had proven efficacy in vitro, and this was also the case for chloroquine, at a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of approximatively 8 µM, and when added to the cell culture either before of after exposure to the virus [5,[8][9][10]. These findings ended up being forgotten because of the disappearance of SARS for reasons that are neither clear nor explained [11]. The novel coronavirus currently isolated in China has been, with staggering speed, evaluated regarding its sensitivity to already used drugs [12]. Thus, the new antiviral drug remdesivir [13] as well as chloroquine, at an EC50 of 1.1 µM, were found to be effective in preventing replication of this virus [12]. Chloroquine is perhaps one of the most prescribed drugs in the world [14,15]. As a matter of fact, all Europeans visiting malaria-endemic geographic areas for decades received chloroquine prophylaxis and continued it for 2 months after their return. In addition, local residents took chloroquine continuously, and treatment of malaria has long been based on this drug. In addition, hydroxychloroquine has been used for decades at much higher doses (up to 600 mg/day) to treat autoimmune diseases [16]. It is difficult to find a product that currently has a better established safety profile than chloroquine. Furthermore, its cost is negligible. Hence, its possible use both in prophylaxis in people exposed to the novel coronavirus and as a curative treatment will probably be promptly evaluated by our Chinese colleagues. If clinical data confirm the biological results, the novel coronavirus-associated disease will have become one of the simplest and cheapest to treat and prevent among infectious respiratory diseases.

Funding: This work was supported by the French Government under the ‘Investments for the Future’ program managed by the National Agency for Research (ANR) [Méditerranée-Infection 10-IAHU-03]. The funding sources had no role in the preparation, review or approval of the manuscript.

Dr. Cheng, who is a US board-certified specialist in anti-aging medicine, adds:

“Vitamin C is very promising for prevention, and especially important to treat dying patients when there is no better treatment. Over 2,000 people have died of the COIV-19 outbreak and yet I have not seen or heard large dose intravenous vitamin C being used in any of the cases. The current sole focus on vaccine and specific antiviral drugs for epidemics is misplaced. Early and sufficiently large doses of intravenous vitamin C are critical. Vitamin C is not only a prototypical antioxidant, but also involved in virus killing and prevention of viral replication. The significance of large dose intravenous vitamin C is not just at antiviral level. It is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that kills most people from coronaviral pandemics (SARS, MERS and now NCP). ARDS is a common final pathway leading to death.”